You’ve heard of the “4 P’s of Marketing,” but what about the 4 C’s of Marketing? While the 4 P’s appear to be more marketer-oriented, the 4 C’s focus on the client or consumer or customer. There are a few variations, but they’re similar enough to discuss in one minute.
Instead of Product, we have what Robert Lauterborn defined as “Consumer Wants and Needs” and Philip Kotler defined as “Customer Value.” In either case, the focus is on what the customer wants to experience and not on what the marketer wants to create.
Instead of Price, we have “Cost to the Customer” because we know that the purchase, ownership, and maintenance of products include much more than just the product price.
Instead of Promotion, which some see as a manipulative, one-way transfer of information, we have “Communication,” which can be seen as a more cooperative, two-way information transfer.
Finally, instead of Place, we have “Convenience.” “Place” refers not only to where you acquire the product, but also to the distribution system that moves the product, causing many people to consider Distribution (or “PDistribution”) as the true fourth P. “Convenience” considers how buyers want to satisfy their needs and wants in as easy a manner as possible.
All marketing models have their issues, but each is a tool to help marketers serve their customers better, and if that’s not your goal, then you’re not a true marketer.
For a more detailed comparison of the 4P and 4C models, see this explanation:
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